Neuropathy a disease of nerve is the common cause of pain in modern world. Chronic neuropathic pain is the most disturbing symptom of lesions in the peripheral nervous system that can be of many forms. Peripheral neuropathy is often distressing may produce disabilities or even found to be fatal. There are several things that cause neuropathies, understanding of the different types of neuropathies as well as their causes, symptoms, treatment options and prognoses is important for management of the painful disease. Symptoms of different painful neuropathies can be similar that sometimes diagnosing the exact type becomes a long and challenging process. This review explores various aspects of neuropathy and explains how health care practitioners should approach the assessment and diagnosis for management and pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain.